Present perfect continuous

Verb tenses
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1. El present perfect continuous

El present perfect continuous  es un tiempo verbal que en español equivale a la forma verbal: yo he estado comiendo, tú has estado comiendo, él ha estado comiendo...
They've been playing all afternoon.
Han estado jugando toda la tarde.
He's been practicing for two hours.
Ha estado ensayando durante dos horas.

2. ¿Cómo se construye el present perfect continuous?

  • La forma afirmativa
    Subject Auxiliar Been Verb (-ing) Examples
    I have
    've
    been waiting I have been waiting for two hours. (yo) He estado esperando durante dos horas.
    You You have been waiting for two hours. (tú) Has estado esperando durante dos horas.
    He has
    's
    He has been waiting for two hours. (él) Ha estado esperando durante dos horas.
    She She has been waiting for two hours. (ella) Ha estado esperando durante dos horas.
    It It has been waiting for two hours. (ello) Ha estado esperando durante dos horas.
    We have
    've
    We have been waiting for two hours. (nosotros/as) Hemos estado esperando durante dos horas.
    You You have been waiting for two hours. (vosotros/as) Habéis estado esperando durante dos horas.
    They They have been waiting for two hours. (ellos/as) Han estado esperando durante dos horas.
  • La forma negativa
    Subject Auxiliar Been Verb (-ing) Examples
    I have not
    haven't
    been waiting I haven't been waiting for two hours. (yo) No he estado esperando durante dos horas.
    You You haven't been waiting for two hours. (tú) No has estado esperando durante dos horas.
    He has not
    hasn't
    He hasn't been waiting for two hours. (él) No ha estado esperando durante dos horas.
    She She hasn't been waiting for two hours. (ella) No ha estado esperando durante dos horas.
    It It hasn't been waiting for two hours. (ello) No ha estado esperando durante dos horas.
    We have not
    haven't
    We haven't been waiting for two hours. (nosotros/as) No hemos estado esperando durante dos horas.
    You You haven't been waiting for two hours. (vosotros/as) No habéis estado esperando durante dos horas.
    They They haven't been waiting for two hours. (ellos/as) No han estado esperando durante dos horas.
  • La forma interrogativa
    Auxiliar Subject Been Verb (-ing) Examples
    Have I been waiting? Have I been waiting for two hours? (yo) ¿He estado esperando durante dos horas?
    you Have you been waiting for two hours? (tú) ¿Has estado esperando durante dos horas?
    Has he Has he been waiting for two hours? (él) ¿Ha estado esperando durante dos horas?
    she Has she been waiting for two hours? (ella) ¿Ha estado esperando durante dos horas?
    it Has she been waiting for two hours? (ello) ¿Ha estado esperando durante dos horas?
    Have we Have we been waiting for two hours? (nosotros/as) ¿Hemos estado esperando durante dos horas?
    you Have you been waiting for two hours? (vosotros/as) ¿Habéis estado esperando durante dos horas?
    they Have they been waiting for two hours? (ellos/as) ¿Han estado esperando durante dos horas?

Al igual que el resto de tiempos verbales, las oraciones interrogativas en present perfect continuous también cuentan con sus propias respuestas cortas.

Adverb Subject Auxiliar
Yes, I have
you
he has
she
it
we have
you
they
Adverb Subject Auxiliar
No, I haven't
you
he hasn't
she
it
we haven't
you
they
- Have they been training until now?
- ¿Han estado entrenando hasta ahora?
- Yes, they have
- Sí.

3. ¿Cómo se utiliza el present perfect continuous?

El present perfect continuous se utiliza para:

  • Expresar una acción que empezó en el pasado y todavía continúa en el presente.
    I've been trying to sleep for half an hour.
    Llevo media hora intentando dormir.
    En este ejemplo se puede observar otra posible traducción del present perfect continuous al español.
    The turkey's been cooking for a good while.
    El pavo se ha estado cocinando durante un buen rato.
  • Expresar una acción que empezó en el pasado y que acaba de terminar. Normalmente se puede ver un resultado en el presente.
    I'm tired. I've been correcting exams.
    Estoy cansada. He estado corrigiendo exámenes.
    En este ejemplo, acaba de terminar de corregir, por lo tanto la acción ha acabado recientemente. Además, hay un resultado en el presente el cual es que está cansada.
    She's been picking cherries.
    Ha estado cogiendo cerezas.
    En este ejemplo, el resultado es la cesta con cerezas y la acción de cogerlas acaba de terminar.
El present perfect continuous no se utiliza con state verbs.

¡Recuerda!

El tiempo verbal present perfect continuous es un tiempo verbal que en español equivale a la forma verbal: yo he estado comiendo, tú has estado comiendo, él ha estado comiendo...
Form Structure Examples
AFFIRMATIVE Sujeto + have / has + been + verbo (gerundio) + complemento The baby has been sleeping for two hours. El bebé lleva durmiendo dos horas.
NEGATIVE Sujeto + have / has + not + been + verbo (gerundio) + complemento You're wrong; I haven't been playing computer games all afternoon. Te equivocas, no he estado jugando a juegos de ordenador toda la tarde.
INTERROGATIVE Sujeto + have / has + not + been + verbo (gerundio) + complemento You are soaking wet. What have you been doing? Estás empapado. ¿Qué has estado haciendo?

 

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