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Linking words of cause and result

Connectors
Practice with the exercises:
Exercise 1

1. Linking words of cause and result

The linking words of cause introduce a sentence that tells the cause or reason why an action occurs. The linking words of result introduce a sentence that expresses the consequence or effect of the cause.
LINKING WORDS OF CAUSE
The road has been closed due to snow.
LINKING WORDS OF RESULT
There was a traffic jam. That's why I'm late.

2. Different linking words of cause

We have different words to introduce a cause or a reason why something happens. They can be used interchangeably:

Linking word Examples
AS As I was late, I took a taxi.
SINCE You need a jacket since it's cold at night.
SEEING THAT Seeing that it's so hot, we'll take a parasol.
BECAUSE OF The race was postponed because of the rain.
DUE TO Public transport is often late due to heavy traffic.
OWING TO Several airports are closed owing to fog.
Since the judge is here, the trial can start.
Some flights have been cancelled owing to the strike.

3. Different linking words of result

We have different words to introduce a sentence that expresses the consequence or effect caused by a sentence that expresses cause:

Linking word Examples
SO His behaviour was unacceptable, so he was expelled.
THAT'S WHY My cousin appears in this soap opera, that's why I watch it.
AS A RESULT
There were road works and as a result, there were traffic jams.
THEREFORE You might need legal advice, therefore, I'll give you my lawyer’s number.
FOR THIS REASON
Loads of people will attend the concert. For this reason, we want to provide more access.
CONSEQUENTLY
We are under a lot of pressure and, consequently our level of stress increases.
ACCORDINGLY
We wanted to reduce pollution. Accordingly, we launched a recycling campaign.
So and that's why are more informal and more commonly used in spoken English, while the others are used in a more formal language.
There have been robberies, that's why we have installed an alarm.
There was a big fire, consequently people had to be evacuated.

Remember!

The linking words of cause introduce a sentence that tells the cause or reason why an action occurs. The linking words of result introduce a sentence that expresses the consequence or effect of the cause.
Linking words of cause Linking words of result
AS
We're going home as it's late.
SO
Autumn is here, so the leaves are falling off the trees.
SINCE He works in London since his family live there. THAT'S WHY
The baby is hungry, that's why he's crying.
SEEING THAT Seeing that public transport is expensive I bought a bike. AS A RESULT

He didn't study hard and as a result, he failed his exams.

BECAUSE OF We looked for shelter because of the storm. THEREFORE The police suspected of the man, therefore, they arrested him.
DUE TO Due to his experience he got the job. FOR THIS REASON Eating fruit and vegetables is essential. For this reason, we should all eat 5 a day.
OWING TO The school is closed owing to storm damage. CONSEQUENTLY He always drives too fast, consequently, he gets lots of fines.

 

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