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Singular and plural nouns

Nouns
Practice with the exercises:
Exercise 1

1. The singular and plural of nouns in English

Nouns can have a singular and a plural form.
Book
 
Books

In most cases an -s is added at the end of the word. However, this ending may vary depending on a number of characteristics.

2. How are the singular and plural nouns formed in English?

Singular Plural Examples
Most nouns We add  –S at the end

Ticket
 
Tickets
 
Doll
 
Dolls
 
Nouns ending in:

-CH

-SH

-S

-Z/ZZ

-X

-SS

We add  –ES at the end
Witch
 
Witches
Fox
 
Foxes
Brush
 
Brushes
Glass
 
Glasses
Bus
 
Buses
Buzz
 
Buzzes
Nouns ending in:
consonant plus -Y
We replace the –Y with -IES
Baby
 
Babies
 
Story
 
Stories
 
Nouns ending in:
vowel plus -Y
We add  –S at the end
Day
 
Days
 
Toy
 
Toys
 
Nouns ending in:
-F o -FE
We replace the -F with 
-VES
Thief
 
Thieves
 
Knife
 
Knives
 
There are exceptions:
Roof
 
Roofs
 
Sheriff
 
Sheriffs
 
Nouns ending in:
-O
We add  –ES at the end
Potato
 
Potatoes
Tomato
 
Tomatoes
Hero
 
Heroes
Mosquito
 
Mosquitoes
There are exceptions:
Photo
 
Photos
Piano
 
Pianos
Nouns with no singular form Always in plural
Scissors
 
Scissors
 
Trousers
 
Trousers
 
Invariable nouns Same form both in singular and plural
Fish
 
Fish
 
Sheep
 
Sheep
 
Irregular plurals They may change one part or almost the whole word when turned into a plural
Foot
 
Feet
Tooth
 
Teeth
Mouse
 
Mice
Child
 
Children
Man
 
Men
Woman
 
Women

Remember!

To form the plural of most nouns we add the ending –S.

Singular Plural Examples
Noun Noun plus -S
Ticket
 
Tickets

However, there a few exceptions to take into account:

Singular Plural Examples
Nouns ending in: We add:  
-CH, -SH, -S, -SS, -X, -Z, -ZZ -ES
Sandwich
 
Sandwiches
-O -ES
Potato
 
Potatoes
Consonant plus -O Y IES
Lady
 
Ladies
Vowel plus -Y -S
Boy
 
Boys
-F / -FE F VES
Knife
 
Knives

Other exceptions:

Words with only a plural form Scissors
Trousers
Words with the same form both in singular and in plural
Fish
 
Fish
Sheep
 
Sheep
Words that suffer some changes when turned into a plural
Foot
 
Feet
Woman
 
Women
Child
 
Children

 

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