1. Avoiding repetition
One way to avoid repeating information when we want to express disagreement is by using auxiliary verbs.
2. Avoiding repetition with auxiliary verbs
When we want to show disagreement with something that has been said before (reference phrase), we usually avoid repeating the information that we already know. To do this, we use an auxiliary verb in the same tense as the reference phrase, and we follow this structure:
- When the reference phrase is affirmative, the auxiliary verb will be negative.- I am a bit hungry.- I am not.
When the reference phrase is negative, the auxiliary verb will be affirmative.- I am not afraid of horses.- I am.
- When the reference phrase is in present simple or past simple affirmative, no auxiliary verb is needed. However, we will have to use an auxiliary in the structure: do/does in the present simple and did in the past simple.She likes chocolate but he doesn't.They went to the beach but I didn't.
When the disagreement is in the negative form, the auxiliary verb can be contracted. However, if it's in the affirmative form, it won't.
|AFFIRMATIVE||Subject + auxiliary or modal verb in NEGATIVE|
|I've already bought the present for Paula.||I haven't. I'll do it tomorrow.|
|NEGATIVE||Subject + auxiliary or modal verb in POSITIVE|
|I didn't watch the football match yesterday.||I did. It was really exciting.|